|Growth Habit||Woody trees & shrubs||Woody or herbaceous|
|Xylem||Tracheids||Vessels and Tracheids|
|Reproductive structures||Cones (usually)||Flowers & fruits|
|Pollination||Wind||Animals, wind, water|
|Fertilization||Egg + Sperm = zygote||Egg + Sperm = zygote|
Polar nuclei + sperm = endosperm
|Seeds||Exposed||Enclosed within fruit|
1. Seed production in closed carpels with nutrient reserve.
2. Efficient water-conducting cells (vessel elements + tracheids).
3. Efficient carbohydrate-conducting cells (sieve tube elements + sieve cells).
4. Leaves -- broad, expanded blades for maximum photosynthesis; many are deciduous and can be shed during times of stress.
5. Modified stem and root storage organs.
6. Adaptation to animal pollination and seed dispersal mechanisms.