This sample exam covers lectures 1-14. The answers are provided at the end
1. Currently we recognize _______ kingdoms of life on earth.
e. none of the above
2. Algae are in kingdom
e. none of the above
3. The sporophyte stage of an organism's life cycle is where
a. there is a diploid set of chromosomes
b. gamete formation occurs
c. there is a haploid set of chromosomes
d. the alternation of generations takes place
e. the organism's phytes are made
4. The binomial system of taxonomic nomenclature for plants was originated
e. Hogg and Haeckel.
5. Linneus initiated the modern system of naming organisms and this system
is known as the:
a. binomial system.
b. Swedish system.
c. common name system.
d. classification scheme.
e. Latin/Greek system.
6. Prokaryotic cells have
a. membrane-bound organelles
e. none of the above
7. Which of the following is true about the Kingdom Protista?
a. all organisms are prokaryotic
b. all organisms are photosynthetic
c. all organisms are heterotrophic
d. all organisms are autotrophic
e. all organisms are eukaryotic
8. What part of the virus actually enters the cell?
c. nucleic acids
9. This group of prokaryotes carry on photosynthesis similar to higher
10. Red algae are important because
a. they are autotrophs
b. they help in coral reef formation
c. they contain ingredients essential fo making icecream
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
11. The taxonomic level of family includes a greater number and higher
diversity of organisms
than does the level of
12. Which of the following groups is most closely related to plants?
c. water molds
13. The gradual buildup of nutrients in a lake is called
b. nitrogen fixation.
d. spring turnover.
14. Bryophytes differ from ferns by
a. having spores, whereas ferns do not have spores
b. having a dominant diploid life history stage instead of a dominant haploid phase as in ferns
c. having stomata, whereas ferns do not have stomata
d. having flagellated sperm cells, whereas ferns produce pollen
e. having no vascular tissue, whereas ferns have xylem and phloem
15. In bryophytes the sporophyte stage
a. has a haploid set of chromosomes
b. grows out of the tissues of the gametophyte
c. is completely independent of the gametophyte
d. is where diploid spores are produced
e. is where the phyte is produced to make a bryophyte
16. The male gamete of a bryophyte is is known as
a. the sporophyte
b. an embryo sac
e. an endospore
17. Which anatomical feature(s) do ferns possess that improves their
ability to live on land?
a. drought resistant seeds.
b. woody cones.
c. motile gametes.
d. vascular tissue.
e. none of the above is correct.
a. have xylem and phloem.
b. all have relatively tiny seeds.
c. produce their gametes in singlecelled sex organs.
d. are mostly parasites of other plants.
e. need water for fertilization.
19. Another way mosses and ferns differ is that
a. ferns are land dwellers and mosses are basically aquatic.
b. ferns have eggs and mosses have spores.
c. ferns have swimming sperm and mosses do not.
d. ferns have a dominant sporophyte stage and mosses have a dominant gametophyte stage.
e. ferns form spores and mosses do not.
20. Gymnosperms include
a. bryophytes and ferns
b. liverworts, whisk ferns and orchids
c. horsetails, psilotum and hornworts
d. Ginkgo and Welwitschia
e. Ulva and Fucus
21. Pines belong to the group of plants known as
22. The gymnosperms most closely related to angiosperms are the
a. Seed ferns
23. Gymnosperms produce male gametes in
a. a protonema
b. an antheridium
c. a seed
d. a spore
e. a pollen grain
24. Which of the following characteristics are present for the first time
in gymnosperms and
therefore represent an "advance" over ferns?
b. woody tissue
d. all of the above
e. b and c
25. Flowering plants are also known as
26. In double fertilization
a. one sperm fuses with the egg and the other sperm reproduces by mitosis
b. one sperm fuses with the egg and the other sperm fuses with the polar nuclei
c. one sperm fuses with the archegonium and the other sperm fuses with the antheridium
d. one sperm fuses with the egg, which doubles in size because of meiosis
e. one sperm fuses with the egg, and the other sperm fuses with the nucellus
27. In angiosperms, seed are produced in
d. special structures on the backs of leaves.
28. The nutrient reserve of the grass seed is derived from
a. the nucellus.
b. the cotyledon.
c. the endosperm.
d. the embryo.
e. the seed coat.
29. Plants that are wind pollinated have
a. showy flowers.
b. feathery, sticky stigmas.
d. exposed petals.
e. no endosperm.
30. Penicillium, yeast, bread mold, and truffles belong to
a. Kingdom Plantae.
b. Kingdom Protista.
c. Kingdom Animalia.
d. Kingdom Fungi.
e. Kingdom Monera.
31. The dispersal unit of most fungi is
a. the mycelium.
b. the hyphae.
c. the ascus.
d. the fruit.
e. the spore.
32. Which characteristic is common to all fungi?
a. cellulose cell walls
b. peptidoglycan cell walls
c. chitin cell walls
33. The atmosphere on the early earth was quite different than it is today.
One gas was missing
compared to the present
day atmosphere, and this was:
a. H2 (hydrogen).
b. CH4 (methane).
c. O2 (oxygen).
d. NH3 (ammonia).
e. H2O (water).
34. The first organsims to evolve on earth were:
b. blue-green algae.
35. Humans appeared on earth
a. during the age of the dinosaurs
b. when plants invaded the land
c. during the Cenozoic
d. in the Paleozoic
e. when flowering plants evolved
36. Plants invaded the land during the
37. The study of the relationships of organisms to each other and to their
e. environmental science
38. A community is a
a. unit composed of all the organisms living in a given area.
b. random collection of organisms.
c. collection of animals.
d. collection of plants.
e. collection of plants and insects.
39. What are ecotypes?
a. really weird organisms.
b. specific types of plants and animals that live together.
c. specific types of plants.
d. individuals living together.
e. individuals adapted to a specific community.
40. The second law of thermodynamics states
a. that gasoline can be used to move automobiles
b. that all energy comes from the sun
c. disorder increases unless energy is added to organize the system
d. energy can neither be created nor destroyed
e. heat is a byproduct of biological reactions
41. In an energy pyramid, the amount of energy passed from one level to the
next is approximately
42. A bird swoops down and eats the insect that was eating the leaf. This
bird is a:
a. poor predator.
b. tertiary consumer.
c. primary consumer.
d. primary producer.
e. secondary consumer.
43. The largest carbon reserves on earth are
a. in the atmosphere
b. in the ocean
c. in rocks
d. in plants
e. in animals
44. Carbon is released from living systems through
b. electron transport
45. A seed plant that forms nodules hosting nitrogen-fixing bacteria is:
46. One element that is very important in algal blooms is:
47. In defining a population over time, which of the following groups of
parameters must be
a. size, natality, immigration, mortality, emigration
b. sex, natality, immigration mortality, emigration
c. outbreeding, inbreeding, mortality, emigration
d. size, inbreeding, natality, mortality, outbreeding
e. all of the above
48. The parameters that function in decreasing population size are
a. natality and mortality
b. immigration and emmigration
c. natality and emmigration
d. mortality and emmigration
e. natality and immigration
49. Commensalism is an interaction where
a. both species suffer
b. both species benefit
c. one species benefits, but the other is unaffected
d. one species benefits and the other species suffers
e. both species go extinct
50. When there are no species on a particular part of the environment, such
as a retreating glacier,
what happens and
what is the first plant to establish itself?
a. secondary succession and Lodgepole pine move in first.
b. primary succession and grasses, followed by pines, establish themselves.
c. primary succession and a range of species, such as grasses, shrubs and trees, move in rapidly.
d. primary succession and the first plants in are mosses.
e. secondary succession and crab grass establishes itself first.
1d, 2a, 3a, 4c, 5a, 6d, 7e, 8c, 9e, 10d, 11a, 12a, 13c, 14e, 15b, 16c, 17d,
18e, 19d, 20d, 21d,
22b, 23e, 24e, 25b,
26b, 27a, 28c, 29b, 30d, 31e, 32c, 33c, 34a, 35c, 36c, 37b, 38a, 39e, 40c, 41c, 42e, 43b, 44c, 45e, 46c, 47a, 48d,